– Colombia Demographics Profile

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The population is descended from three racial groups–Indians, blacks, and whites–that have mingled throughout the nearly years of the country’s history. No official figures were available, but according to rough estimates in wnat late s, mestizos white-Indian mix constituted approximately 50 percent of the population, whites 25 percent, wht black-white mix and zambos black-Indian mix 20 percent, blacks 4 percent, and Indians 1 percent.

Recognizing the impossibility of objective racial classification and not wishing to emphasize ethnic or racial differences, the national census dropped references to race after what percentage of colombia is white Nevertheless, most Colombians continued to identify themselves and others according to ancestry, physical appearance, and sociocultural status. Social relations reflected the importance attached to certain characteristics associated with a given racial group.

Although these characteristics what percentage of colombia is white longer accurately demarcated distinct social categories, they still helped determine rank in the social hierarchy.

The various groups were found in differing concentrations throughout the nation, largely reflecting the wjat social system. The large mestizo population was predominantly a peasant group, concentrated in the highlands where the Spanish conquerors had mixed with the women of Indian chiefdoms.

After the s, however, mestizos percenyage moving to the cities, where they became part of the urban working class or urban poor. The black and mulatto populations were also part of this trend but lived mainly along the coasts and in the lowlands. Descendants of Indians who survived the Spanish conquest were found in scattered groups in remote areas largely outside the national society, such as the higher elevations of the southern highlands, the forests north and west of the cordilleras, the arid Guajira Peninsula, and the vast eastern plains and Amazonian jungles, which had only begun to be penetrated by other groups in the twentieth century.

The Indian groups differed from the rest of the nation in major cultural aspects. Although what percentage of colombia is white continued whag speak indigenous languages, Spanish, introduced by missionaries, was the predominant what percentage of colombia is white among all but the most isolated groups.

In the wwhite fifty years after the discovery of the Americas, the Spanish began to settle in present-day Colombia, introducing their culture and social system and imposing their values on the African slaves they imported and the indigenous population they conquered.

Patterns of colonial settlement were reinforced throughout later periods, leaving frontier areas– usually less hospitable land–open for settlement by nonwhites– especially blacks, mulattoes, and retreating Colomvia tribes. The Spanish created a hierarchical society in which they occupied the top stratum in terms of prestige, wealth, and power; slaves and Indians occupied the bottom.

White skin became synonymous with being Spanish and therefore of high status. Offspring of what percentage of colombia is white unions fell somewhere in between, adopting the dominant culture по этой ссылке recognized by their Spanish fathers, remaining on the social periphery if not.

As the character and value system of the nation were formed, notions of color, class, and culture merged to elevate whites, subjugate blacks and Indians, and allow upward mobility for mulattoes and mestizos who dissociated themselves from the heritage of their nonwhite ancestors in favor of becoming “Spanish.

The persistent supremacy and relative purity of the Spanish heritage was brought about by a combination of factors. The indigenous population was sparse, heterogeneous, and thus relatively easily subdued, driven into less accessible and less desirable areas or absorbed by the Spanish population during the colonial era.

Blacks, viewed as slaves until the mid-nineteenth century and as manual laborers thereafter, remained segregated economically, geographically, and socially. Although Indians and blacks outnumbered whites and people of mixed blood in certain regions, they remained minorities without shared identity or cohesion on the national level. The lack of immigrants from other European nations and the emphasis on traditional Spanish institutions–particularly Roman Catholicism– helped white Colombians retain their Hispanic identification.

Finally, a diverse geography and resultant regionalism exacerbated the lack of communal feelings among the masses and provided little basis for national cohesion within any group except the tightly knit white elite. As Colombian society developed, there was little change in its rigid stratification. Various intellectuals, clergy, and politicians unsuccessfully attempted to debate the status of Indians and blacks and to prevent discrimination against them.

Being a recognized member of the national society and thereby what percentage of colombia is white for its benefits and what percentage of colombia is white chance at upward mobility required allegiance to a culture and a behavioral pattern based almost entirely on traditional Spanish values. Anything outside this pattern was anomalous and was considered un-Colombian. Independence did little to alter the colonial framework of the society.

In the struggle for independence, the peninsulares those born in Spain were backed by Spanish troops, and the criollos those born in the New World of Spanish descent were backed by mestizo and mulatto cloombia nonetheless, the values and outlooks colombix the two factions больше информации similar.

Many what percentage of colombia is white the peninsulares left after independence, allowing the criollos and some persons of mixed blood to take over their positions in the нажмите чтобы узнать больше. To this extent, the system was opened up to qualified mestizos and mulattoes, but those who moved up did so as individuals whose mobility was based on education, wealth, and culture rather than on a change in the status of their group.

No attempt was made to upgrade the colombiaa of blacks, who remained on the periphery of the national society, or Indians, who what percentage of colombia is white almost completely outside it.

Both Indians and blacks continued to reside on the outskirts of national life, as much because of their class and culture as their color. Percentsge a group, however, blacks were more integrated into the national society and left a greater mark on it for several reasons.

First, dhat had been a part of Spanish society since the Middle Ages, whereas Indians were relative newcomers. The Spanish had long possessed Africans as personal servants and did not find them as alien as the Indians they encountered in the New World. Moreover, it was more difficult for the blacks to maintain their original culture because, what percentage of colombia is white the Indians, they could not remain within their own communities and did not initially have the option of retreating into isolated areas.

They did not arrive in and were not grouped into organized social units, and, coming from different areas of Africa, they often did not share the same language or culture. Although slave revolts sometimes occurred, no large community of escaped slaves survived in isolation to preserve its African heritage, as did the Maroons in Jamaica.

Finally, despite their position on the bottom rung of the social ladder, black slaves сайтец, nevada tan думаю had close relations–as domestic servants–with Spaniards and were therefore exposed to Spanish culture much more than were the Indians.

Blacks thus became a part, although a peripheral one, of Colombian society from the beginning, learning Spanish and adopting the ways of the Spanish that were permitted them.

They thought of themselves as Colombians by the end of the colonial period and felt superior to the Indians, who officially occupied higher status, were nominally free, and were closer in skin color, percfntage features, and hair texture to the emerging mestizo mix.

The proportion of white ancestry has been an important measure of status for the mixed groups since the colonial era, when each degree of mixture was recognized as a distinct category. The plethora of terms for color still being used in the s reflected the persistence of this colonial pattern and a continuing desire among Colombians to classify each other according colmobia color and social group.

A complex racial terminology led to persons of the same class using different смотрите подробнее to define themselves racially. These terms also cut across class lines so that persons at one level defined themselves as being racially similar to those at other levels. The confusion over classification affected most Colombians because most of them did not define themselves as being white, black, or Indian, which are distinct and mutually exclusive groups, but as belonging to one of the mixed categories.

Factors that helped Colombians order their perceptions of color were, in addition to the interplay of biological and social data, geographic residence and membership in a social class. Residence in a region often automatically categorized an individual.

Migration and rural or urban residence could also determine a person’s status. A dark-skinned mulatto who because of wealth and prestige would be a member of the local elite in a rural area along the coast would not be so considered outside his or her region. Conversely, movement from a larger to a smaller town might enhance an individual’s status.

Usually the only Colombians whose status was invariable were the national elite, Indians, and blacks. Perceptions of one’s own color and that of others also varied with class membership. A lower-class person in either an urban or a rural area was likely to be more concerned with the daily dhite for survival than with skin color, especially if the person’s peers were of a similar racial background. Members what percentage of colombia is white the upper class were equally secure in their status as white Colombians, whether or not they appeared Caucasian to the casual observer, because their status automatically defined them as such.

The racial segregation of the polar pecrentage of the class structure–with virtually no whire or Indians in the elite and equally few whites in the lower class–reinforced cultural and class distinctions. It was among the self-conscious, racially mixed members of the middle sectors that color and ethnic designations were critical and likely to contribute to status.

Ix other factors being equal, light-skinned mestizos with straight hair found mobility easier than darker-skinned counterparts.

A man, especially a black or mulatto, might improve his social position or that of his children by marrying a lighter-skinned percentag wealthier woman. Mestizos might place more emphasis on acquiring other accoutrements of whiteness, such as an education, a cultured life-style, or a genteel occupation. In the late s, whites continued to occupy the highest positions in the government, economy, and society.

Most of them resided in the large urban centers, and even those who did not considered themselves urban in orientation. Membership in the white group was usually concomitant with upper- or middle-class values and behavior patterns and adherence to Roman Catholicism and its teachings–in name if not in practice. Whites modeled their life-styles, family patterns, and human relations largely on European and North American norms and in turn dictated them to the rest of society.

The white group whay emphasized racial and cultural purity and wealth derived from property. The exception was in Antioquia Department, where a great deal of miscegenation took place and where social distinctions rested largely on economic achievement rather than ethnic considerations. Creative читать полностью journalistic writing, literary criticism, and university professorship were also considered appropriate careers or sidelines for whites who were financially secure.

For what percentage of colombia is white less well off, business, commerce, and industry provided more lucrative, if less traditional, positions. Although North American cultural influence has grown substantially since the s, whites remained culturally what percentage of colombia is white to Europe–particularly percentqge France and Spain. Children continued to be sent to Europe and the United States ot schooling, to learn languages, and to become cosmopolitan.

Only in the twentieth century did white Colombians begin по этому адресу seriously study nonwhite facets of their country’s social system and incorporate them into their scholarly and creative works. Insistence on racial purity within the white group varied among regions and sometimes was not as important as light skin and an old, respected Spanish surname.

In fact, many people who came from families that had been considered white for generations were actually descendants of people of mixed ancestry who purchased certificates of white ancestry from the Spanish crown.

Whites did not usually marry dark-skinned individuals, however, what percentage of colombia is white economic hardship necessitated bringing a wealthy mulatto or mestizo into the family. From the earliest years of the colonial period, miscegenation among whites, Indians, and blacks occurred so much that people of mixed origin soon came to outnumber all other groups combined.

In fact, racial mixing was so great that Colombians usually referred to themselves as a mestizo nation–in whag case meaning simply “mixed”–despite the absence of a significant cultural synthesis. In the mids, people of mixed origin were found throughout the society–in all classes, occupations, and geographic regions. The status of individuals of mixed blood varied, from those who bordered on what percentage of colombia is white white to those who had recently moved out of marginal status as black or Indian.

Probably the only factors that tied the mixed group together were a general recognition that status as what percentage of colombia is white mestizo or mulatto was better than that as an Indian or a black and some feeling of belonging to the national society.

Colombians perceived considerable differences between mestizos and mulattoes. Mestizos found upward mobility easier than mulattoes in most areas, probably because mestizo physical characteristics were more like those of the idealized Colombian: light brown to white skin, straight or wavy hair, and caucasoid facial features.

Moreover, once a person was considered mestizo, his cultural identity automatically became that of the dominant white group, whereas mulattos often exhibited black cultural and social traits that made upward social mobility more difficult. Many blacks percenyage slave status early in Colombian history, becoming part of the free population.

Some what percentage of colombia is white awarded freedom by their what percentage of colombia is white, and some purchased their liberty, but probably the greatest number achieved freedom by escape. There were numerous revolts, particularly in the Cauca Valley and along the Caribbean coast, that liberated many slaves.

Those who achieved freedom sometimes moved into Indian communities, and their zambo offspring became part of the indigenous group. Others founded their own settlements. In other по этому адресу, such as the Magdalena Valley, black communities had considerable white and Indian admixtures. The distribution of blacks in the s continued to reflect that of the colonial period.

Despite the length of time during what percentage of colombia is white Colombia had jurisdiction over them, most blacks on these islands retained their Protestant religion, continued to speak English, and regarded themselves as a group distinct from mainland residents. Descendants of slaves preserved relatively little of their African heritage or identification.

Some place-names were derived from African languages, and some traditional musical instruments brought into the country by slaves were used throughout the country.

Religion in the black communities remained the most durable link with the African past. In the s, wholly black communities were disappearing, not only because their residents were moving to the cities but also because the surrounding mestizo and white populations had begun moving into black communities. Eventual absorption into the mixed milieu appeared inevitable in the s.

Moreover, as blacks moved into the mainstream of society from its peripheries, they perceived the advantages of better education and jobs.



– Race and ethnicity in Colombia – Wikipedia


According to the Census, Whites live mainly in Andean Region and the urban centers; [10] they are mostly of Spanish lineage, but there is also a large population of Middle East descent, [11] as well as some Italian[12] German[13] and another European ancestry, [14] [15] particularly among upper classes. Genetic ancestry of White Colombians according to Candela Project Insettlers founded Santa Martathe oldest Spanish city still in existence in Colombia.

Many Spaniards came searching for goldwhile others established themselves as leaders of the social organizations teaching the Christian faith and the ways of their civilization. Basque priests introduced handball into Colombia. The first German immigrants arrived in the 16th century contracted by the Spanish Crown, and included explorers such as Ambrosio Alfinger and Nikolaus Federmann.

There was what percentage of colombia is white small wave of German immigrants at the end of the 19th and beginning of 20th century including Leo Siegfried Kopp, the founder of the famous Bavaria Brewery. SCADTA продолжить чтение, a Colombian-German air transport corporation which was established by German expatriates inwas the first commercial airline in the western hemisphere. In December the United States government estimated that there were at least what percentage of colombia is white, Germans living по ссылке Colombia.

A wave of Ashkenazi immigrants came after the rise of Nazism infollowed by as many as 17, German Jews. From until the end of World War II, immigration was put to a halt by anti-immigrant feelings in the country and restrictions on immigration from Germany.

There were some Nazi agitators in Colombia, such as Barranquilla businessman Emil Prufurt, [19] but the majority was apolitical. Colombia asked Germans who were on the U. Colombia was one of early focus of Sephardi immigration. It has been suggested that the present day culture of business entrepreneurship in the region of Antioquia and Valle del Cauca is attributable to Sephardi immigration.

The largest wave of Middle Eastern immigration began aroundand remained during the first two decades of the 20th century. When they were first processed in the ports of Colombia, they were classified as Turks. During the early part of the 20th century, numerous Jewish immigrants came from Turkey, North Africa and Syria.

Shortly after, Jewish immigrants began to arrive from Eastern Europe. Betweenand 3, Colombians have full or partial Middle Eastern descent.

A figure of 50, from to may be reliable. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Colombian descendants of European people. James Martin Eder. Colombian Jewish entrepreneur. Portrait of Jorge Isaacs. Colombian Jewish это best brunch places asheville nc милинько and intellectual. Main article: Arab diaspora in Colombia.

Main article: Jews in Colombia. Colombia portal Europe portal. PLOS Genetics. ISSN PMC PMID Convergencia in Spanish. Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 26 January Retrieved 11 June Douglass, Jon Bilbao, P. Retrieved 20 February Leonard, John F. Bratzel, P. Retrieved 25 November XXIX Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 16 July Ancestry and ethnicity in Colombia.

See also Lists of Colombians Race and ethnicity in Colombia. White people. Bold refers to countries, regions and territories in which the majority ethnic group is generally considered to be people of European descent. Australia New Caledonia New Zealand. Acting white Passing as white Angry white man What percentage of colombia is white white woman syndrome Skin whitening White flight White guilt White privilege Whiteness studies Whitewashing in film White savior White demographic decline.

Ethnic groups in Europe Light skin. Hidden what percentage of colombia is white CS1 maint: postscript CS1 Spanish-language sources es CS1 French-language sources fr Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Use dmy dates from March Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June Source attribution. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Learn to edit What percentage of colombia is white portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Esperanto Edit links. Throughout the подробнее на этой странице, especially in the Andean Region and the major cities [8].

Predominantly Colombian Spanish.


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