What does s.p.q.r stand for
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It appears on Roman currency , at the end of documents made public by an inscription in stone or metal, and in dedications of monuments and public and civil works. Populus que is compounded from the nominative noun Populus , “the People”, and -que , an enclitic particle meaning “and” which connects the two nominative nouns.
The title’s date of establishment is unknown, but it first appears in inscriptions of the Late Republic, from c. The abbreviation last appears on coins of Constantine the Great ruled — AD , the first Roman emperor to support Christianity. Under the Roman Kingdom , neither entity was sovereign. The phrase, therefore, can be dated to no earlier than the foundation of the Republic.
This signature continued in use under the Roman Empire. They appear in early Latin as Popolus and Poplus , so the habit of thinking of themselves as free and sovereign was quite ingrained. The Romans believed that all authority came from the people. It could be said that similar language seen in more modern political and social revolutions directly comes from this usage. People in this sense meant the whole government. One of the ways the emperor Commodus — paid for his donatives and mass entertainments was to tax the senatorial order, and on many inscriptions, the traditional order is provocatively reversed Populus Senatusque During the regime of Benito Mussolini , SPQR was emblazoned on a number of public buildings and manhole covers in an attempt to promote his dictatorship as a ” New Roman Empire “.
Even in contemporary usage, SPQR is still used in the municipal coat of arms of Rome and as abbreviation for the comune of Rome in official documents. SPQ x is sometimes used as an assertion of municipal pride and civic rights. There have been confirmed usages and reports of the deployment of the “SPQ x ” template in;. In the movie Gladiator , the Roman general Maximus portrayed by Russell Crowe has “SPQR” tattooed on his shoulder, which he removes by scraping after he is sold into slavery.
Some members of white nationalist groups use the abbreviation SPQR on flags, on their person such as tattoos and other forms of identification. Arch of Septimius Severus top inscription. Dedicatory plaque to Federico Fellini on Via Veneto. Mural in the Burgerzaal of Rotterdam City Hall.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Latin initialism referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic. This article is about the Latin initialism. For other uses, see SPQR disambiguation.
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– SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome – University College Oxford
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Early CPR This helps maintain blood flow to the vital organs. External Defibrillator A device ready for use when advanced medical personnel arrive. Early Advanced Life Support Administered by trained medical personnel who provide further care and transport to hospital facilities. It wouldn’t be chic Latin, but understood. An online version of the book can be found here. Words written in abbreviated form consist either of the initial letter si n g u la or of a continuous group of letters more or less restricted in number.
In the latter case the final letter of the abbreviation is the first consonant of a syllable, but this is not an exact rule. If a word is composed of several members, the above rule applies either to the word treated as a whole or to each of the component parts regarded as individual words.
This in theory is the system of abbreviations up to the end of the third century A. When a disregard of these principles first made itself felt in the formation of abbreviations cannot be exactly determined, but it is probable that ignorance or a misunderstanding of the second rule, combined with a lack of knowledge of the component parts of words as determining the abbreviated forms, led to the violation of the principle of continuity of the letters Pages to provide a list of acronyms, where we can see several adding the Q when the word includes a que suffix, albeit this is not a universal rule.
Examples include:. Maybe there are some further analysis in the book relevant for the question at hand, but don’t have the time at the moment. All I can conclude from this however is that “in theory”, up until the third century AD the rule was to add Q for que in an acronym. You are looking at this from the modern English tradition of omitting articles like “and” or “of” from acronyms. The Romans did not necessarily follow the same aesthetics. One reason for this may have been the actual pronunciation of the phrase at the time.
They may have emphasized the -que when speaking, perhaps. Plus there is the fact that they did not space their words out separately as we do today.
Maybe the -que suffix started as a separate word but became considered a suffix much later. Sign up to join this community.
Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more about Teams. Ask Question. Asked 5 years, 1 month ago. Modified 2 years, 8 months ago. Viewed 33k times. Improve this question. The key evidence would be to find other examples using the same approach but Joonas’s answer might indicate there is not another. Spanish is a dialect of Latin.
SPR: senado popular revolucionario. Show 4 more comments. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first.
Improve this answer. There are plenty of modern examples of acronyms or initialisms where letters are included from the inner part of a word, although usually this is in the case of acronyms for the sake of pronunciation or making a better pun. I also can’t come up with a single example at the moment. But, there is no hard requirement for the letters in an abbreviation to all be the first letter of each word. The joke was it meant SPera Que Ruja wait till the wolf roars. I can’t find a match in Spanish either, but you just made me remember that joke.
The initial e in espera is omitted to force the joke. Show 3 more comments. Ken Graham 1 1 gold badge 7 7 silver badges 18 18 bronze badges. Welcome to the site! Should it be Senatus Populus Quiritesque Romani? It would make sense to have an et or -que , although asyndeton is not unheard of.
The only problem I see with this answer is that the only inscription I have found that has the expression written in full is the Arch of Titus JoonasIlmavirta maybe you know of more? And that inscription uses the “populusque” version. Add a comment. But the following text originally from an older version of the SPQR Wikipedia entry should still offer a good summary: “S.
S most assuredly stood for Senatus – “Senate”. Senatus Populus Quiritium Romanorum Senatus Populusque Quiritium Romanorum This version is remarkably similar to the journal above and follows the same logic, self translated as the “Senate and people of the Roman citizens. Senatus Populusque Romanus Senatus Populusque Romanus The Senate and the Roman family This version started to be used since a completely early stage of the Roman republic, and subsequently continued to be used during the Roman empire.
That -que meaning “and” added to a word would be heard as a separate unit of meaning. Spelled out in this way is the inscription on a frieze on the Temple of Saturn, at the foot of the Capitoline. This may date to a restoration in the third century A. The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature says that the populus Romanus of the abbreviation is the Roman citizenry eligible to be soldiers and their families, but that they are distinct from the quirites.
This puts the “R” for Romanus clearly with “P” for populus and not the “S” for senatus. That means it’s the Roman people, but not the Roman senate.
Many think the letters stand for Senatus PopulusQue Romanorum , which is what I thought until I realized that that would be redundant—translating as it would as “the senate and the people of the Roman people “. There are other variants for the “R”, including Romae , instead of Romanus or Romanorum. The Romae could be a locative or a genitive. There is even a suggestion that the Q stands for Quirites in some form, which could make the adjective “Romanus” govern the quirites. Cornell says the form was used by the fetiales for declaring war and cites Livy 1.
What does s.p.q.r stand for
What does S.P.Q.R stand for and why did the roman soldiers carry this acronym into battle? Senatus Populusque Romanus (“The Senate and People of Rome”) carried into battle . S.P.Q.R. Senatus Populusque Romanus + 4. Arrow. Latin, Roman. Latin, Roman. Vote. 2. Vote. S. P. Q. R. QPR stands for Question, Persuade, and Refer — the 3 simple steps anyone can learn to help save a life from suicide. Just as people trained in CPR and the Heimlich Maneuver help save .