Where is gandhara school of art situated – where is gandhara school of art situated:
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It was employed to give expression to the beliefs and practices of Bhddhists. Except for a few exceptions, no Greek art motif has been detected in the specimens. The Gandhara artist had the hand of a Greek, but the heart of an Indian. There are large Gandhara stupas and monasteries that have survived as ruins at Guldara in Afganishtan. Later a votive stupa from loriyaan Tangai in Gandhara has been found.
If this is treated as the model of stupa in Gandhara, the stupa has undergone great changes form great stupa at Sanchi with its dome structure. In Gandhara the dome grew taller while the square railing at its summit was enlarged and elaborated. The greatest of all gandhara stupas is the one erected by Kanishka outside the gates of modern Peshawar.
Here also the stupa had not survived but a reliquary receptacle for relics of Kanishka have been found. One more such beliquary has been found at Bimaran in Afganishtan.
This particular kind of Gandhara style continued at least till the 8th century. It was along with Caravan route joining Taxila with Bactria that one of the greatest monastic centers of Buddhism flourished.
It is the Bamiyan valley. The paintings in the valley reveal the motives adopted from Sassanian fabric designs. The most spectacular creation carved from the cliffs at Bamiyan are two colossal standing figures of the Buddha, the largest of them began as high as ft. It was finished with lime plaster. The image reflects the Gupta style of early fifth century. Above the figure’s head are fragments of painting resembling those created by Gupta Buddhists at Ajanta. Stucco was a popular technique in Gandhara art.
A large number of monasteries of Afganishtan are decorated with stucco images. Also terracotta was used particularly among those who could not afford stone sculpture. Terracotta figures were also used as decorations in homes and as toys. All these provide interesting glimpses of the dresses and fashions of the time.
Another revealing feature is the presence of the images of Mother Goddess, as the worship of this goddess remain an essential religious expression of the ordinary people. Buddhism, too came to be associated with fertility cult and other popular religious cults. This association in evident from the symbolic importance of the stupa and the brackets with female figures as can be seen at Sanchi.
As a matter of fact, these figures are a sophisticated version of Mother Goddess images. They all offer many examples of excellent sculpture. Each of them has a distinct style. The most well-known are the elaborate base relief from Amravati. Over many years this form was pursued. Most of it was probably executed in Huvishka reign. Simultaneously with the appearance of Buddha icon in Gandhara Buddha portrait based upon Yaksha model began to be created in the southern worship or Mathura.
Bellow, an emigrant from the collapsing Gandhara region in the 5th century brought this name to modern Kandahar. Writing in c. God be merciful to both father and son! Their scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate aversion towards all Muslims.
This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares, and other places. And there the antagonism between them and all foreigners receives more and more nourishment both from political and religious sources.
During the closing years of the tenth and the early years of the succeeding century of our era, Mahmud the first Sultan and Musalman of the Turk dynasty of kings who ruled at Ghazni , made a succession of inroads twelve or fourteen in number, into Gandhar — the present Peshawar valley — in the course of his proselytizing invasions of Hindustan.
Fire and sword, havoc and destruction, marked his course everywhere. Gandhar which was styled the Garden of the North was left at his death a weird and desolate waste. Its rich fields and fruitful gardens, together with the canal which watered them the course of which is still partially traceable in the western part of the plain , had all disappeared. Its numerous stone built cities, monasteries, and topes with their valuable and revered monuments and sculptures, were sacked, fired, razed to the ground, and utterly destroyed as habitations.
By the time Gandhara had been absorbed into the empire of Mahmud of Ghazni, Buddhist buildings were already in ruins and Gandhara art had been forgotten. He recorded some events that took place in Gandhara, and provided details about its last royal dynasty and capital Udabhandapura.
In the 19th century, British soldiers and administrators started taking an interest in the ancient history of the Indian Subcontinent. In the s coins of the post-Ashoka period were discovered, and in the same period Chinese travelogues were translated. Chinese records provided locations and site plans for Buddhist shrines. Along with the discovery of coins, these records provided clues necessary to piece together the history of Gandhara.
In Cunningham found Gandhara sculptures north of Peshawar. He also identified the site of Taxila in the s. From then on a large number of Buddhist statues were discovered in the Peshawar valley. Archaeologist John Marshall excavated at Taxila between and He discovered separate Greek, Parthian, and Kushan cities and a large number of stupas and monasteries.
These discoveries helped to piece together much more of the chronology of the history of Gandhara and its art. Excavation of many of the sites of Gandhara Civilization are being done by researchers from Peshawar and several universities around the world.
Linguistic evidence links some groups of the Dardic languages with Gandhari. This corpus of texts often includes and emphasizes ascetic practices and forest dwelling, and absorption in states of meditative concentration: . But when a second attack took place on the statue, the feet, shoulders, and face were demolished.
Gandharan Buddhist missionaries were active, with other monks from Central Asia, from the 2nd century CE in the Han-dynasty BC — CE at China’s capital of Luoyang , and particularly distinguished themselves by their translation work. These translators included:. The site of this monastery has since been rediscovered by archaeologists.
Manuscripts and fragments that have survived from this monastery’s collection include the following source texts: . It declined and was destroyed after the invasion of the White Huns in the 5th century. Siddhartha shown as a bejeweled prince before the Sidhartha renounces palace life is a common motif. Stucco , as well as stone, were widely used by sculptors in Gandhara for the decoration of monastic and cult buildings. Buddhist imagery combined with some artistic elements from the cultures of the Hellenistic world.
An example is the youthful Buddha, his hair in wavy curls, similar to statutes of Apollo. Sacred artworks and architectural decorations used limestone for stucco composed by a mixture of local crushed rocks i.
The Greek god Atlas , supporting a Buddhist monument, Hadda. The Bodhisattva Maitreya 2nd century. The Buddha preaching at the Deer Park in Sarnath 2nd—3rd century. The death of the Buddha, or parinirvana 2nd—3rd century. The Bodhisattva and Chandeka, Hadda 5th century. The Buddha and Vajrapani under the guise of Herakles. Hellenistic decorative scrolls from Hadda, Afghanistan. Confucianism Persons. Neo Confucianism. Daoism Persons.
Vedic philosophy. Japanese Buddhism. Japanese Confucianism. Korean Confucianism Persons. Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ancient region in the Indian subcontinent. For the kingdom in Epics, see Gandhara Kingdom. For other uses, see Gandhara disambiguation. Not to be confused with Kandahar.
Kabul river. Indus river. Approximate geographical region of Gandhara centered on the Peshawar Basin , in present-day northwest Pakistan. Main articles: Gandhara grave culture and Indo-Aryan migration. See also: Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Paropamisadae. Main article: Hindu Shahi. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Gandhari language. See also: Greco-Buddhist art. Buddha in acanthus capital. Bodhisattva seated in meditation. Part of a series on the. Palaeolithic Soanian culture , c. Parthian Empire , c.
Caliphate , c. Early modern. Durrani Empire , c. Pakistan , c. History of provinces. Category Portal. Main article: list of people from Gandhara. A History of India. Psychology Press. ISBN Bamiyan: Challenge to World Heritage. Third Eye.
Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. The two regions shared cultural and political connections and trade relations and this facilitated the adoption and exchange of religious ideas. Richard Hindu Art , Harvard University Press: “The earliest figures of Shiva which show him in purely human form come from the area of ancient Gandhara” p. A History of Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass.
Retrieved April Pakistan: A Global Studies Handbook. Old Persian p. In particular Old Persian nasals such as “n” were omitted in writing before consonants Old Persian p. Historical Geography , Encyclopaedia Iranica, 15 December Taken as Gandhavat the name is explained as meaning hsiang-hsing or “scent-action” from the word gandha which means scent , small , perfume. At the Internet Archive. Placenames of the World. City, south central Afghanistan At Google Books. Vedic Index of Names and Subjects.
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. At Google Books. Histories in Greek. With an English translation by A. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Sign In. Open in App Create free Account.
Search for:. Get Pass Pass. Download Post as PDF. Table of Contents. Taxila was a well-known Gandhara art site.
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Sitauted: sculpture is made out of blue-grave schist, which is found only in Gandhara. Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom. Later a votive stupa from loriyaan Tangai in Gandhara has been found.
Where is gandhara school of art situated – where is gandhara school of art situated: –
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Where is gandhara school of art situated – where is gandhara school of art situated:. Gandhara And Mathura School Of Art
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